Mister Pistacho

Botriosphere: Prevention and control in pistachio cultivation.

Botrisphere (Botryosphaeria spp.) is a disease associated with fungal gen. Botryosphaeria, Diplodia, Neofusicoccum... described in California in 1984 and affecting a wide range of hosts. Periods of high RH alternating with dry periods favor the incidence of the disease. The highest risk of infection occurs in spring, between the end of March and the end of May, especially with spring rains and temperatures above 10ºC. Among all pistachio plant varieties, Kerman is the most susceptible.

Table of Contents

Botryosphere, one of the fungal diseases of the pistachio tree

Due to the recent spring rains and subsequent high temperatures, we observed a high number of mushroom plantations. It is time to identify them to carry out correct treatment. We list the main ones:

  • botrytis
  • Septoria
  • Alternaria
  • botryosphere
  • Rust

They are all fungal diseases that mainly affect pistachio trees. Some can even cause damage to leaves, clusters and fruits. Preventive measures are recommended such as keeping the plot clean and free of diseased branches and using preventive fungicides authorized with registration for pistachio. It is also important to frequently monitor the state of the crops and use professional technical advisory services.

In this article we are going to focus on the botryosphere.

Symptoms and development cycle of the Botryosphere

Botriosphere is a fungal disease that mainly affects pistachio trees. This disease can have a great impact on pistachio production if it is not detected and controlled in time. It is important to know the symptoms of the Botryosphere to be able to act quickly and prevent it from spreading throughout the plant and affecting the quality and quantity of pistachio production.

Visual symptoms on pistachio leaves

  • Round or irregular brown or black spots on the leaves of the plant.
  • Drying and falling of leaves.
  • Discoloration of the veins of the leaves.

It is important to look closely at the leaves, especially at the top, as this is where the spots appear first and with greatest intensity.

Injuries to tree shoots

The Botryosphere can cause injuries to the tree's shoots, which affects the growth and productivity of the tree. Some of the most common symptoms are the following:

  • Lengthening of shoots.
  • Blackening and drying of tissues.
  • Delayed shoot growth.

Injuries may also occur on the main branches of the tree, but to a lesser extent than on the buds and leaves.

Symptoms in affected buds

The Botryosphere can affect the buds of the plant, resulting in a reduction in the growth and production of the tree. Some of the most common symptoms are the following:

  • Discoloration and drying of the yolks.
  • Abortion of buds that have not grown enough.
  • Decrease in tree growth and production.

The symptoms of Botryosphere are very varied and can affect different parts of the plant. It is important to be attentive to changes in the appearance of leaves, shoots and buds, and take preventive measures to avoid the spread of the disease.

Image of pistachio fruits affected by the botryosphere fungus.
Fruits of a pistachio tree affected by the fungus Botryosphaeria spp.
Image of leaves of the pistachio tree affected by the botryosphere fungus.
The botryosphere causes lesions on the leaves in the form of irregular spots with light brown chlorotic margins.

Preventive measures for the Botryosphere

Prevention is the best way to protect pistachio crops against Botryosphere, a fungal disease that can affect leaves, branches, clusters and fruits. Below are some preventive measures that can help control the Botryosphere:

Use of fungicides

It is important to use preventive copper-based fungicides to prevent the Botryosphere from affecting pistachio crops. They should be applied according to the manufacturer's instructions and during the appropriate times in the crop cycle. In addition, the use of different types of fungicides is recommended to avoid resistance of the fungus. If the attack is strong, we must treat with systemic fungicides, such as fluopyram + tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, pyrimethanil, or iprodione, always after the rains and the months of June and July being the most effective.

Recommendations for tree pruning

Pruning is an important technique to manage the Botrysphere in pistachio crops. It is essential to remove all diseased and damaged branches, as well as infected leaves. In addition, it is advisable to carry out adequate pruning to avoid the accumulation of humidity and insufficient air circulation, which contribute to the development of fungi and other pathogens.

Adequate irrigation systems

The Botryosphere is favored by humid and cool environments. Therefore, it is important to avoid excess moisture in pistachio crops, which can be caused by inadequate irrigation systems. Drip irrigation is a recommended option, because it allows for careful and precise application of water.

Keeping the plot clean and free of diseased branches

It is essential to keep the crop plot clean and free of diseased branches, infected leaves and plant debris. It is important to remove all these elements from the field, burn them or destroy them in a designated place and in compliance with current regulations, thus avoiding the spread of the disease.

Fungicides authorized for use in the Botryosphere

In some autonomous communities, specific fungicides have been authorized for the control of the Botriosphere in pistachio cultivation. These fungicides can be applied preventively to prevent the appearance of the disease, or to cure it in case of infection.

Specialized technical advisory services

At Mister Pistacho we offer specialized technical advisory services for pistachio producers, in order to offer personalized and effective solutions in the control of the Botryosphere and other diseases and pests of the crop. These services have specialized professionals who provide information on the proper management of the crop and the measures to take to prevent and control the disease.

If you need help with Botryosphere or any other fungal disease of the pistachio tree, do not hesitate to contact us.

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